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Cybersecurity Risks and Business Context

After a brief hiatus, we are back with Season 3 of the Ask A CISO podcast. There are quite a few things we are doing differently this season (details below), but first, let's welcome our first guest for the new season: Fausto Lendeborg, Co-Founder and Chief Customer Officer of Secberus, and learn more about his start in cybersecurity, DDoS attacks, dealing with alert fatigue, and understanding what IaC, SaC, and PaC are.

Happy New Year! We hope yours is off to a great start!

As mentioned above, we are doing things a little differently this year for the podcast and the podcast page.

So, what's new on the Ask A CISO Podcast?

For starters, you'll notice new starting and ending themes for the podcast, and you can now download the transcript in PDF if you prefer reading the content rather than watching or listening to it.

Click here to start watching the new episode on YouTube. Alternatively, you can choose to listen to the podcast on Spotify or Apple Podcasts.

Click to watch Cybersecurity Risks and Business Context

The second new thing is that we are including a blog addressing a topic mentioned in (almost) every episode.

For this first episode, let's look at several terms mentioned in the podcast with this blog below. We hope it will be useful for you.

Simple Guide to IaC, PaC, SaC, MttD, and MttR.

Organizations are increasingly turning to innovative solutions to improve their cybersecurity posture in today's fast-paced and ever-evolving technological landscape.

One approach is using code to manage various aspects of their IT infrastructure and security processes.

Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC), Policy-as-Code (PaC), and Security-as-Code (SAC) are terms that have gained significant traction in recent years and are becoming increasingly important for organizations looking to streamline their security processes.

In addition, metrics such as Mean Time to Detection (MTTD) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) are critical for measuring the effectiveness of an organization's incident response and remediation efforts.

This blog will look at these critical concepts by providing definitions of each term, examples, and implementation cases to help you better understand these solutions.

Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC)

Infrastructure-as-Code, or IaC, is a DevOps practice that allows organizations to manage and provision their infrastructure resources as code instead of manual configuration.

IaC aims to automate and simplify the process of infrastructure deployment, management, and scaling. This helps to reduce human error, increase efficiency, and ensure consistency and repeatability of configurations.

Example of IaC

For example, suppose an organization is setting up its cloud infrastructure to host a web application.

Instead of manual configuration, the organization can define the infrastructure components, such as virtual machines, network settings, and storage, in a code format such as YAML or JSON.

This code can then automate the deployment process using tools like Terraform, AWS CloudFormation, or Ansible.

What are YAML and JSON?


YAML, or "Yet Another Markup Language," is a human-readable data serialization format that is commonly used for storing and exchanging configuration data, such as in infrastructure as code (IaC) and policy as code (PaC) implementations.

It is designed to be easily readable and written by both humans and computers, with a syntax that is less complex and verbose compared to other markup languages like XML or JSON.

In IaC, YAML is often used to describe the desired state of an IT infrastructure or a policy, allowing organizations to automate the provisioning and management of their infrastructure.

For example, a YAML file might describe the desired state of a server, including the software packages to be installed, the configuration settings to be applied, and the networking settings to be used.

YAML is popular for its simplicity, readability, and support for nested structures, making it a suitable format for defining complex configurations clearly and concisely. This, in turn, makes it easier for organizations to manage their IT infrastructure, policies, and security processes in a more automated and efficient manner.


Most of us would have come across JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation," somewhat often.

JSON is a lightweight data-interchange format widely used for exchanging data between systems. It is a text-based format that is designed to be easy for humans to read and write, as well as easy for machines to parse and generate.

JSON is a standard format for exchanging data in web applications, APIs, and other distributed systems, as it provides a way to represent complex data structures, such as arrays and objects, compactly and efficiently.

This makes it a suitable format for transmitting data over networks, as it can be easily parsed and processed by servers and clients.

JSON is often used with RESTful APIs for communication between web applications and servers. For example, a client might make an HTTP request to a server, and the server might respond with a JSON-encoded representation of the requested data.

JSON is a widely adopted format that is flexible and easy to use, making it a popular choice for data exchange and storage in various applications and systems.

Implementing IaC

To implement IaC, your organization must adopt a DevOps culture and work closely with your development and operations teams. They need to identify the infrastructure components that must be managed as code, choose a suitable tool, and define the infrastructure in code format.

The code should be tested and validated before deployment, and you should establish a continuous integration and Deployment (CI/CD) process to manage updates to the infrastructure over time.

Policy-as-Code (PaC)

In simple terms, PaC is a methodology that allows organizations to define and enforce policies as code. This helps to automate the process of policy evaluation and enforcement, reduce human error, and ensure consistency and repeatability of policies.

Example of PaC

Suppose you want to enforce a policy that requires all virtual machines to be encrypted. Instead of manual configuration, you can define this policy as code using a tool such as Azure Policy or AWS Config Rules.

With PaC, the virtual machines will be automatically evaluated to ensure that they are encrypted per the policy.

Implementing PaC

To implement PaC, your organization needs to identify the policies that need to be managed as code, choose a suitable tool, and define the policies in code format.

The policies should be tested and validated before deployment, and you should establish a process for continuous monitoring and enforcement of policies.

Security-as-Code (SaC)

SaC embeds security into the software development lifecycle (SDLC) by treating security as code. This helps to automate security testing, reduce human error, and improve overall security posture.

Example of SaC

Here’s a simple example: suppose your development team is building a web application.

With SaC, instead of manual security testing, the team can use tools such as OWASP ZAP or Snyk to scan the code for vulnerabilities as code and report any vulnerabilities that need to be fixed.

Implementing SaC

To implement SaC, your organization needs to adopt a secure SDLC and work closely with your development teams.

The teams need to identify the security testing tools that need to be used, integrate them into the SDLC, and define the security testing process in code format before being automated and integrated into the CI/CD pipeline.

Mean Time to Detection (MTTD)

MTTD measures the amount of time it takes for your organization to detect a security breach.

Its main goal is to help your organization identify security incidents quickly, reduce the impact of the incidents, and improve the overall security posture of your infrastructure.

In other words, MTTD helps identify security incidents as quickly as possible to minimize the impact of an incident.

Your organization can use MTTD to measure the time it takes to detect a security breach caused by a malicious actor who gains access to sensitive data.

You can then track the time from when the breach occurred to when it was detected and use this information to improve your security processes and tools to detect breaches more quickly in the future.

To implement MTTD, your organization can deploy security tools such as intrusion detection systems (IDS), security information and event management (SIEM) systems, and log analysis tools to detect security incidents.

Or you can also implement security incident response processes to ensure that incidents are detected, analyzed, and responded to as quickly as possible.

Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)

MTTR measures the time it takes your organization to repair a security breach.

The primary goal of MTTR is to minimize the impact of a security incident by resolving it as quickly as possible.

For example, your organization could use MTTR to measure the time you take to repair a security breach caused by a malicious actor who gains access to sensitive data.

You could track the time from when the breach was detected to when it was repaired and use this information to improve your security processes and tools to repair breaches more quickly in the future.

You can use security incident response processes to implement MTTR and ensure that incidents are detected, analyzed, and resolved as quickly as possible. You can also implement security remediation processes to resolve security issues effectively and efficiently.

In short, MTTR helps your organization to minimize the impact of security incidents by resolving them as quickly as possible, which helps improve the overall security posture of your infrastructure and reduces the risk of future security incidents.


Advancements in technology have brought about new approaches to managing infrastructure, security, and policies.

Infrastructure-as-Code, Policy-as-Code, and Security-as-Code offer your organization the ability to automate and manage your IT systems more efficiently and effectively.

At the same time, Meantime to Detection and Meantime to Repair are crucial metrics that your organization can use to measure your incident response capabilities and improve your overall security posture.

We hope that you have gained a better understanding of what the terms are and how they can be implemented to ensure that your IT systems are secure, scalable, and resilient.

Isaiah Chua

Isaiah Chua is a Content Marketing Manager at Horangi who is also the producer of the Ask A CISO podcast. He's an avid reader who can't get by a day without good music and gallons of coffee.

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